Chief of State: President Bujar Nishani
Head of Government: Prime Minister Edi Rama
Government Name: Republic of Albania
Constitution: Adopted: 1998; Defines Albania as a parliamentary republic. The constitution is divided into 18 parts which also sanction people's sovereignty and fundamental rights of the citizens. This is the most recent of many Albanian constitutions due to political instability.
Government Type: Parliamentary Democracy
|Main Powers||Election Process||Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/|
The president has the power to guarantee observation of the constitution and all laws, act as commander in chief, exercise the duties of the assembly of the Republic of Albania when the assembly is not currently in session, and has the ability to appoint the prime minister. The prime minister precedes over the council of ministers as chairman.
The president is elected by the people's assembly. The prime minister is chosen by the leading party, or coalition, in parliament and is approved by presidential decree.
The constitutional court interprets the constitution, determines whether laws are unconstitutional, and resolves disagreements between local and federal authorities. The court of cassation serves as the highest court of Albania.
Parliament appoints the seven members of the court of cassation and five of the nine judges on the constitutional court, with the rest appointed by the president. A supreme judicial council appoints all other judges. In 1992, the supreme judicial council began to remove judges who had served under the former communist regime.
Constitutional Court: maximum of 9 year terms; Court of Cassation: maximum of 7 year terms
The council of ministers carries out foreign and domestic policies and also directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs. The parliament must approve legislation proposed by cabinet members in order to be passed.
The council of ministers is nominated by the president on the basis of the prime minister's recommendations and final approval must be given by the people's assembly. Parliament has 140 members that are elected through a closed-list proportional representation system. There are 12 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the country's 12 administrative regions. Within any constituency, parties must meet a threshold of 5% .
Foreign Policy Trends: Albania is pursuing a path of Euro-Atlantic integration. Its primary long-term goals are to gain EU membership and to promote closer bilateral ties with its neighbors and with the United States. Albania maintains good relations with its neighbors. It re-established diplomatic relations with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia following the ousting of Slobodan Milosevic in 2000. Albanian, Macedonian, and Italian law enforcement agencies are cooperating with increasing efficiency to crack down on the trafficking of arms, drugs, contraband, and human beings across their borders.
Regional Trade Blocs: CEFTA
International Organization Participation Source: CIA World Factbook
Note: Click table to see details
Environmental Agreements Source: CIA World Factbook
|Air Pollution||Biodiversity||Climate Change||Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol||Desertification||Endangered Species|
|Hazardous Wastes||Law of the Sea||Ozone Layer Protection||Tropical Timber 06||Wetlands|
Note: Click table to see details
Tax Authority: General Directorate of Taxes
Tax Name: VAT