Chief of State: President Kersti Kaljulaid
Head of Government: Prime Minister Taavi Rõivas
Government Name: Republic of Estonia
Constitution: Adopted: 1992; Incorporates elements from previous constitutions (1920 & 1938). Fundamental rights, freedoms, and duties; the people; the Riigikogu (legislative power); president and government of the republic; legislation; finance and the state budget; foreign relations and international treaties; national defense; the state audit office; the chancellor of justice; the courts; and local government are topics detailed in the document.
Government Type: Parliamentary Republic
|Main Powers||Election Process||Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/|
The executive branch carries out the country’s domestic and foreign policy. Shaped by parliament, it directs and coordinates the work of government institutions and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power.
The president is elected by parliament. The prime minister is nominated by president and approved by parliament.
The judicial branch includes the review of court decisions which have entered into force (a new hearing of a court decision which has entered into force is conducted on the basis of a petition by a participant in the proceedings after new facts relevant to the adjudication of the case become evident) and the correction of court errors in court decisions which have entered into force.
The chief justice is proposed by the president and appointed by the Riigikogu, other justices are proposed by the chief justice and appointed by the Riigikogu.
The legislature ratifies significant foreign agreements that impose military and proprietary obligations, brings about changes in law, approves the budget presented by the government as law, and monitors the executive power.
The parliament has 101 members elected through an open-list proportional representation.
Foreign Policy Trends: Estonia has developed into a strong international actor through its membership in the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); it is a capable advocate and promoter of stability and democracy in Central Europe and the rest of the world. In the EU, Estonia's priorities include supporting continued EU enlargement; raising EU competitiveness through innovation; developing a unified European energy policy; enhancing and fostering the European Neighborhood Policy; and improving the EU relationship with Russia.
Regional Trade Blocs: European Union
Treaties: NATO, Common Security and Defense Policy
International Organization Participation Source: CIA World Factbook
Note: Click table to see details
Environmental Agreements Source: CIA World Factbook
|Air Pollution||Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides||Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants||Air Pollution-Sulfur 85||Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds||Antarctic Treaty|
|Biodiversity||Climate Change||Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol||Endangered Species||Hazardous Wastes||Law of the Sea|
|Ozone Layer Protection||Ship Pollution||Tropical Timber 06||Wetlands|
Note: Click table to see details
Tax Authority: Ministry of Finance & Estonian Tax and Customs Board
Tax Name: VAT