Chief of State: President Vladimir Putin
Head of Government: Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
Government Name: Russian Federation
Constitution: Adopted: 1993; Details fundamentals of the constitutional system, rights and liberties of man and citizen, the federative system, president of the Russian federation, federal assembly, government of the Russian federation, the judiciary, and local self-government.
Government Type: Federation
|Main Powers||Election Process||Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/|
President is not the head of the executive branch, but rather a guarantor of the constitution, can submit draft legislation, deals with domestic/foreign policy. Premier determines operating priorities of the government, represents the government in foreign relations, signs acts of the government.
President is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. Premier is appointed by the president.
Constitutional Court rules on the constitutionality of laws, Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in some cases and is the court of last resort for cases heard in lower courts, and Supreme Court of Arbitration is the court of final instance in commercial disputes and supervises the work of lower courts.
Nominated by the President of Russia and appointed by the Federation Council.
Federation Council must cooperate with the State Duma in the completion and voting upon draft laws. Federal laws concerning budgets, customs, regulations, credit monitoring, and the ratification of international treaties are to be considered by the Council after they have been adopted from the State Duma. The State Duma is responsible for the appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank of Russia, Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber, and the Commissioner for Human rights. Also must decide the issue of confidence, announce amnesty, and bring charges against the President for his impeachment.
Federation Council members are appointed by regional governing councils, and in the State Duma, 225 members are elected through a closed-list proportional representation system, with the remaining 225 members elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies.
Federation council: No specified term limits; Duma: 4 years
Foreign Policy Trends: Over the past several years Russia has increased its international profile, played an increasing role in regional issues, and been more assertive in dealing with its neighbors. In recent years, Russia has not shied from using its significant oil and gas exports as sources of political influence. The August 2008 conflict between Russia and Georgia marked a new low point in relations between the two countries, with Russia unilaterally recognizing the Georgian breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent countries. Russia continues to support separatist regimes in Georgia and Moldova.
Treaties: Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Collective Security Treaty Organization
International Organization Participation Source: CIA World Factbook
Note: Click table to see details
Environmental Agreements Source: CIA World Factbook
|Air Pollution||Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides||Air Pollution-Sulfur 85||Air Pollution-Sulfur 94||Antarctic Seals||Antarctic Treaty|
|Antarctic-Environmental Protocol||Antarctic-Marine Living Resources||Biodiversity||Climate Change||Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol||Desertification|
|Endangered Species||Environmental Modification||Hazardous Wastes||Law of the Sea||Marine Dumping||Ozone Layer Protection|
Note: Click table to see details
Tax Authority: Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation & Federal Tax Service
Tax Name: VAT