China: Government

People's Republic of China Flag
Coat of Arms of People's Republic of China

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Xi Jinping

Head of Government: Premier Li Keqiang

Overview

Government Name: People's Republic of China

Constitution: Adopted: 1982; The Constitution has five sections which include: the preamble, general principles, fundamental rights and duties of citizens, structure of the state, the national flag, and the emblems of the state.

Government Type: Communist state

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

The presidency is the ceremonial office and serves as head of state. It represents China in foreign relations and receives foreign diplomats. The state council is the chief authority overseeing subordinate people's governments.

The president is elected by the national people's congrress.

5 years

Judicial

The supreme people's court is highest court of the land and supervises lower courts in local municipalities.

The chief justice is appointed by the national people's congress. Other justices and judges are nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the standing committee of the national people's congress.

Chief Justice: 5 year terms; Other justices and judges: no term limit

Legislative

The national people's congress wields the highest power of the government and appoints state council, president, and judges. It mediates policy differences of the party and government, amends constitution, and supervises enforcement of constitution.

The national people's congress has 2987 members who are indirectly elected by regional legislatures.

5 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: Since its establishment, the People's Republic has worked vigorously to win international support for its position that it is the sole legitimate government of all China, including Hong Kong, Macau, Tibet, and Taiwan. China has sought a higher profile in the UN through its permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council and other multilateral organizations. Closer to home, China has made efforts to reduce tensions in Asia, hosting the Six-Party Talks on North Korea's nuclear weapons program. The United States and China share common goals of peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula and North Korean denuclearization. China has cultivated a more cooperative relationship with members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and actively participated in the ASEAN Regional Forum. Relations with Japan improved following Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's October 2006 visit to Beijing, and have seen a gradual improvement under successive Japanese administrations. Tensions persist with Japan, however, on longstanding and emotionally charged disputes over history and competing claims to portions of the East China Sea, and relations suffered a new dip following Japan's September 2010 arrest of a Chinese fishing trawler captain for ramming a Japanese Coast Guard vessel in the vicinity of the Japanese-administered Senkakus (Diaoyu) islands.

Regional Trade Blocs: APEC

Treaties: Shanghai Cooperation Organization


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

ADB AfDB APEC ARF ASEAN BIS
CDB CICA EAS ESCAP FAO FATF
G-20 G-24 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD
ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IFAD IFC
IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO
Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO
ITU LAIA MIGA MINURSO MINUSMA MONUSCO
NAM NSG OAS OPCW Pacific Alliance PCA
PIF SAARC SCO SICA UN UNAMID
UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL
UNISFA UNMIL UNMISS UNMIT UNOCI UNSC
UNTSO UNWTO UPU WCO WHO WIPO
WMO WTO ZC

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Antarctic Treaty Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification
Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection
Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 06 Wetlands Whaling

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: Ministry of Finance & State Administration of Taxation

Tax Name: VAT


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary