Colombia: Government

Republic of Colombia Flag
Coat of Arms of Republic of Colombia

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Juan Manuel Santos Calderon

Head of Government: President Juan Manuel Santos Calderon

Overview

Government Name: Republic of Colombia

Constitution: Adopted: 1991; Has recently been called the Constitution of Rights. Main changes include Colombia changing the shape of a decentralized unified state with a certain autonomy for its territorial entities, a presidential system, and the banning of the extradition of Colombian citizens. Presidential reelection has been banned completely and the power of judicial review was transferred from the supreme court of justice to an independent constitutional court.

Government Type: Republic under Authoritarian Presidential Rule

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

The president is in charge of executory tasks of the government and has strong policy-making authority. It can also call congressional session.

The president is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system.

4 years

Judicial

The supreme court of justice is in charge of civilian cases. The council of state is in charge of administrative cases. The constitutional court is in charge of constitutional cases.

Supreme court judges are appointed by the congress from candidates submitted by the president.

Life

Legislative

The legislature is in charge of policy making and budgets.

The senate's 102 members and the house of representatives' 166 members are both elected through a party-list proportional representation system.

4 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: Colombia joined UNASUR in January 2011. Former Foreign Minister Maria Emma Mejia is Secretary General of UNASUR and holds the 1-year position until April 2012. Colombia also joined CELAC (the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States) organized by Venezuela in December 2011 as an alternative to the Organization of American States (OAS). Colombia has traditionally played an active role in the United Nations and its subsidiary agencies. Colombia was elected (unopposed) to a 2011-2012 term as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.

Regional Trade Blocs: ANCOM

Treaties: South American Defense Council


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

BCIE BIS CAN Caricom CD CDB
CELAC FAO G-24 G-3 G-77 IADB
IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA
IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF
IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU
ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAES LAIA
Mercosur MIGA NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW
Pacific Alliance PCA UN UNASUR UNCTAD UNESCO
UNHCR UNIDO Union Latina UNSC UNWTO UPU
WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species
Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 06
Wetlands

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales

Tax Name: VAT


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary