Ecuador: Government

Republic of Ecuador Flag
Coat of Arms of Republic of Ecuador

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Rafael Correa

Head of Government: President Rafael Correa

Overview

Government Name: Republic of Ecuador

Constitution: Adopted: 2008; First constitution in the world to legally recognize the Rights of Nature. Basic constitutional guidelines regarding rights, constitutional guarantees, territorial organization of the state, development structure, and the good way of living system are outlined. Also discussed are international investment, food sovereignty, and drug liberalization.

Government Type: Republic

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

The executive branch includes 28 ministries. The president serves as both the head of state and head of government. The vice president succeeds the president in turbulent political situations.

The president is elected by majority vote through a two-round system.

4 years

Judicial

The supreme court is independent of the executive and legislative branches.

Justices of the national court of justice are elected by the judiciary council with one-third of the judges renewed every 3 years. The constitutional court judges are appointed by the national assembly from candidates selected by the president, supreme court, and other government officials.

National Court of Justices: 9 year non-renewable terms; Constitutional Court Judges: 2 year terms

Legislative

The national assembly has the power to pass laws, while the appointment of judges to the national court of justice is done by a separate judicial council.

The national congress has 15 members who are elected through an open-list proportional representation system, 116 members who are elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies, and 6 members who are elected by majority vote in mullti-member constituencies.

4 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: Ecuador's main objective when it comes to foreign policy is to protect their territory from external and internal threats. The U.S. is Ecuador's principal trading partner. Ecuador is a founding member of the United Nations, a member of the Organization of American States, the Rio Group, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Energy Organization, as well as the Andean Pact.

Regional Trade Blocs: ANCOM

Treaties: South American Defense Council


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

CAN CD CELAC FAO G-11 G-77
IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM
IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO
IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU
ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAES LAIA
Mercosur MIGA MINUSTAH NAM OAS OPANAL
OPCW OPEC Pacific Alliance PCA UN UNAMID
UNASUR UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO Union Latina
UNMIL UNMISS UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCO
WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Antarctic Treaty Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification
Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 06 Wetlands

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: Ecuadorian Internal Revenue Service

Tax Name: VAT


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary