Nepal: Government

Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Flag
Coat of Arms of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Bidhya Devi Bhandari

Head of Government: Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal

Overview

Government Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Constitution: Adopted: 1990; As the country's 5th constitution since 1948, this constitution changed a previously partyless system into a multiparty system. It also changed the King's role into one of a constitutional monarch rather than solely a monarch.

Government Type: Federal Democratic Republic

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

President serves as the head of state of Nepal. Prime minister exercises executive power and heads the cabinet of ministers.

President and prime minister are elected by parliament.

5 years

Judicial

Highest court of Nepal.

Appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council and the Judicial Council.

Mandatory retirement age of 65

Legislative

Serves as the country's parliament and legislative body.

240 members are elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies. 355 members are elected through a closed-list proportional representation system, and 26 members are appointed by the cabinet.

5 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: As a small, landlocked country wedged between two much larger and far stronger powers, Nepal seeks good relations with both India and China. Nepal formally established relations with China in 1956 and, since then, their bilateral relations have generally been good. Because of strong cultural, religious, linguistic, and economic ties, Nepal's association with India traditionally has been close. India and Nepal restored trade relations in 1990 after a break caused by India's security concerns over Nepal's relations with China. A bilateral trade treaty signed with India in 1991 is subject to renewal every 5 years. A transit treaty with India, which allows Nepal to trade with other countries through the Calcutta/Haldia ports, was extended on March 30, 2006 for 7 years.

Regional Trade Blocs: SAARC

Treaties: No multilateral military treaties


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

ADB BIMSTEC CD CP ESCAP FAO
G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM
IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF
IMO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO
ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURSO MINUSMA
MINUSTAH MONUSCO NAM OPCW SAARC SACEP
UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNIFIL
UNISFA UNMIL UNMISS UNMIT UNOCI UNTSO
UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO
WMO WTO

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes
Law of the Sea Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Wetlands

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: Information not available

Tax Name: Information not available


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary