Turkmenistan: History

  1. 1400s

    Through the 17th century, the southern part of modern Turkmenistan is under Persian rule, while the northern part is controlled by the Uzbek-ruled states of Khiva and Bukhara.

  2. 1881

    The area of modern-day Turkmenistan is incorporated into Russian Turkestan after the Battle of Gok Tepe.

  3. 1925

    Turkmenistan becomes a constituent republic of the USSR.

  4. 1991

    Turkmenistan declares its independence shortly before the collapse of the USSR.

  5. 1993

    The Manat is introduced as Turkmenistan's national currency.

  6. 1997

    Private ownership of land is legalized.

  7. 1998

    A natural-gas pipeline to Iran is opened.

  8. 2006

    An agreement is signed with Beijing to build a pipeline to transport gas from Turkmenistan to China.

  9. 2007

    Russia, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan agree to build a pipeline north of the Caspian Sea to supply Russia with Turkmen gas.


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