Through the 17th century, the southern part of modern Turkmenistan is under Persian rule, while the northern part is controlled by the Uzbek-ruled states of Khiva and Bukhara.
The area of modern-day Turkmenistan is incorporated into Russian Turkestan after the Battle of Gok Tepe.
Turkmenistan becomes a constituent republic of the USSR.
Turkmenistan declares its independence shortly before the collapse of the USSR.
The Manat is introduced as Turkmenistan's national currency.
Private ownership of land is legalized.
A natural-gas pipeline to Iran is opened.
An agreement is signed with Beijing to build a pipeline to transport gas from Turkmenistan to China.
Russia, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan agree to build a pipeline north of the Caspian Sea to supply Russia with Turkmen gas.