Britain is given control over Afghan foreign affairs by way of a treaty.
Emir Amanullah Khan takes control of Afghanistan’s foreign affairs and declares independence from British influence.
Zahir Shah becomes king and reigns for the next 40 years.
Sardar Mohammed Daoud becomes prime minister and introduces controversial reform policies and solicits military and economic assistance from the United States and Soviet Union.
Mohammed Daoud seizes power in a military coup, forcing Zahir Shah to flee. He abolishes the monarchy and establishes a republic with himself as president.
The Soviet Army invades Afghanistan and establishes a communist government with Babrak Karmal as ruler.
Strong opposition forms against the communist government and fighting ensues between the Soviets and Afghan army, known as the mujahideen. The United States provides the mujahideen with military and economic assistance.
The Taliban, after taking control of Kabul in 1996, occupies 90% of the country and begins to impose an extreme interpretation of Islam and commit massive human rights violations.
After the September 11 attacks on the United States, the US leads a bombing campaign against the Taliban.
NATO takes over control of security operations for all of Afghanistan.
Command of all military and security operations is returned to the Afghan army from NATO.