Afghanistan: Government

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Flag
Coat of Arms of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Ashraf Ghani

Head of Government: President Ashraf Ghani

Overview

Government Name: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Constitution: Adopted: 2004; There were previous 1747 and 1923 versions. The 2004 Constitution evolved out of the Afghan Constitution which was mandated by the Bonn Agreement. It overviews the structure of the Afghan government and territory associated with its individual provinces.

Government Type: Islamic Republic

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

The president has power over the military and legislative affairs and serves as the head of state. The vice president has the second highest political position obtainable in Afghanistan.

The president is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. Vice president candidates are appointed by the president then elected by direct popular vote.

5 years

Judicial

The supreme court is the highest judicial branch of the government and head of the judiciary power. The supreme court is managed based on law by the chief of supreme court, members, high council of the supreme court, general administration directorate of the judicial power, and some professional and administration sections.

The nine justices on the tribunal are appointed by the president, with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga, the lower house of the nation's legislature. The president selects one of the nine members to serve as chief justice.

10 years

Legislative

The House of Elders primarily has an advisory role rather than a maker of law, but also has some veto power. The House of People creates and ratifies laws as well as approves the actions of the president.

The House of Elders has 102 members: 34 elected by regional legislatures, 34 elected by regional legislatures for shorter terms, and 34 elected by the president. The House of People is elected through the single non-transferable voting (SNTV) system.

House of Elders: 34 elected for 3 years, 34 for 4 years, and the remaining 34 for 5 years; House of People: 5 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: After the declaration of its full independence on August 21, 1991, Latvia became a member of the United Nations, and signed a number of other international agreements. Latvia is a member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the North Atlantic Coordinating Council. In September 2003, Latvians voted to join the European Union, and their membership took effect in May 2004. Latvia continues to seek more active participation in United Nations peacekeeping worldwide.

Regional Trade Blocs: CEFTA, SAARC

Treaties: No multilateral military treaties


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

ADB CICA CP ECO EITI ESCAP
FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC
ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS
ILO IMF Interpol IOC IOM IPU
ISO ITSO ITU MIGA MINUSMA NAM
OIC OPCW OSCE SAARC SACEP SCO
UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNWTO UPU
WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTO

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Biodiversity Climate Change Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes
Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: Information not available

Tax Name: Information not available


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary