Brazil: Government

Federative Republic of Brazil Flag
Coat of Arms of Federative Republic of Brazil

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Dilma Rousseff

Head of Government: President Dilma Rousseff

Overview

Government Name: Federative Republic of Brazil

Constitution: Adopted: 1988; Resulting from the previous six constitutions, this version of the Constitution abolished monarchy in Brazil and introduced separate state powers. It also reinforces the powers of the legislature and introduces environmental protection.

Government Type: Federal Republic

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

The president leads the executive branch and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian armed forces. The vice president would replace the president and assumes the role of presidency while president is abroad. The cabinet administers assist the president in the exercise of the executive power by administrating a corresponding government ministry.

The president and vice president are elected by the citizens of Brazil by absolute majority vote through a two-round system.

4 years

Judicial

The judiciary is separate from other government entities.

Justices are appointed by the president and approved by the federal senate.

Mandatory retirement age of 70

Legislative

The federal senate is the upper house of bicameral congress. The chamber of deputies is the lower house.

The federal senate has 81 members who are elected by plurality vote in multi-member constituencies. The chamber of deputies has 513 members who are elected through an open-list proportional representation system.

Federal Senate: 8 years; Chamber of Deputies: 4 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: Brazil has traditionally been a leader in the inter-American community. It has played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. Recently, Brazil has given high priority to expanding relations with its South American neighbors and is a founding member of the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI); the Union of South American Nations (UNASUL) created in June 2004; and Mercosul (Mercosur). As Brazil's domestic economy has grown and diversified, the country has become increasingly involved in international economic and trade policy discussions.

Regional Trade Blocs: MERCOSUR

Treaties: South American Defense Council


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

AfDB BIS BRICS CAN CD CELAC
CPLP FAO FATF G-15 G-20 G-24
G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC
ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO
ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC
IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC
LAES LAIA LAS Mercosur MIGA MINURSO
MINUSTAH NAM NSG OAS OECD OPANAL
OPCW Paris Club PCA SICA UN UNASUR
UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL
Union Latina UNISFA UNITAR UNMIL UNMISS UNMIT
UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO
WIPO WMO WTO

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Antarctic Seals Antarctic Treaty Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Biodiversity Climate Change
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea
Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 06 Wetlands Whaling

Note: Click table to see details



Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary