Chief of State: President Rosen Plevneliev
Head of Government: Prime Minister Boyko Borisov
Government Name: Republic of Bulgaria
Constitution: Adopted: 1991; Overviews fundamental principles, fundamental rights and duties of citizens, the structure of the national assembly, the duties of the president, council of ministers, the judiciary, local self-government and local administration, the constitutional court, and various amendments.
Government Type: Parliamentary Democracy
|Main Powers||Election Process||Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/|
The president schedules elections and referendums, represents Bulgaria abroad, concludes international treaties, and heads the consultative council for national security. The prime minister leads a political coalition in the Narodno Sabranie and is the leader of the cabinet of ministers.
The president is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The prime minister is elected by parliament.
President: 5 years; Prime Minister: Until dismissal by executive branch
The constitutional court is in charge of reviewing the constitutionality of laws and statutes. The supreme administrative court rules on all challenges to the legality of acts of the council of ministers, individual ministers, and of other acts established by law. The supreme court of cassation is the final court of appeal in the Republic of Bulgaria. It exercises supreme judicial power over the application of law in all courts.
The constitutional court has one third appointed by the president, one third elected by the national assembly, and one third elected at a general meeting of the judges of the supreme court of cassation and the supreme administrative court. Supreme administrative court and court of cassation chairs are appointed by the president, deputy judges are appointed by the supreme judicial council.
Constitutional Court: 9 years (in a rotation system of a third every three years); Supreme Courts: Chairmen/prosecutor-general have seven year terms with a two term limit. Judges have tenure after age of 65 unless dismissed for incapacitation, criminal activity, or neglect of duty.
Narodno Sabranie enacts laws, approves the budget, schedules presidential elections, selects/dismisses ministers, declares war, deploys troops outside of Bulgaria, and ratifies international treaties and agreements.
Narodno Sabranie has 240 members elected through a closed-list proportional representation system.
Foreign Policy Trends: Bulgaria's relationship with its neighbors has generally been good. The country has proven to be a constructive force in the region and has played an important role in promoting regional security. Pursuing its initiative as a partner in the South-East European regional cooperation, Bulgaria held the chairmanship-in-office of the South-East European Cooperation Process (SEECP) for the period May 2007-May 2008.
Regional Trade Blocs: European Union
Treaties: NATO, Common Security and Defense Policy
International Organization Participation Source: CIA World Factbook
Note: Click table to see details
Environmental Agreements Source: CIA World Factbook
|Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides||Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants||Air Pollution-Sulfur 85||Air Pollution-Sulfur 94||Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds||Antarctic-Environmental Protocol|
|Antarctic Treaty||Biodiversity||Climate Change||Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol||Air Pollution||Antarctic-Marine Living Resources|
|Desertification||Endangered Species||Environmental Modification||Hazardous Wastes||Law of the Sea||Marine Dumping|
|Ozone Layer Protection||Ship Pollution||Tropical Timber 06||Wetlands|
Note: Click table to see details
Tax Authority: Ministry of Finance
Tax Name: VAT