Finland: Government

Republic of Finland Flag
Coat of Arms of Republic of Finland

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Sauli Niinistö

Head of Government: Prime Minister Juha Sipilä

Overview

Government Name: Republic of Finland

Constitution: Adopted: 2000; Defines the basis, structures, and organization of government, the relationship between different constitutional bodies, and also elaborates upon the fundamental rights of Finnish citizens.

Government Type: Republic

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

The executive branch handles foreign affairs (except for certain international agreements and decisions of peace or war), approves laws, may call extraordinary parliamentary sessions, and resides over the armed forces.

The president is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The prime minister is appointed by the president with approval of parliament.

6 years

Judicial

The judicial branch rules on important points of law in cases which are significant for the entire legal order, guiding the administration of justice in future cases.

Supreme court and supreme administrative court judges are appointed by the president of the republic

Mandatory retirement at 65

Legislative

The legislative branch may alter the constitution, bring about the resignation of the Government, and override presidential vetoes.

The parliament has 200 members elected by open-list proportional representation.

4 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: Finland's basic foreign policy goal from the end of the Continuation War with the U.S.S.R. in 1944 until 1991 was to avoid great-power conflicts and to build mutual confidence with the Soviet Union. Although the country was culturally, socially, and politically Western, Finns realized they must live in peace with the U.S.S.R. and take no action that might be interpreted as a security threat. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 opened up dramatic new possibilities for Finland and has resulted in the Finns actively seeking greater participation in Western political and economic structures. Finland joined the European Union in 1995.

Regional Trade Blocs: European Union

Treaties: Common Security and Defense Policy


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

ADB AfDB Arctic Council Australia Group BIS CBSS
CD CE CERN EAPC EBRD ECB
EIB EITI EMU ESA EU FAO
FATF IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC
ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS
IHO ILO IMF IMO IMSO Interpol
IOC IOM IPU ISO ITSO ITU
ITUC MIGA MINUSMA NC NEA NIB
NSG OAS OECD OPCW OSCE Pacific Alliance
Paris Club PCA PFP Schengen Convention UN UNCTAD
UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNMIL UNMOGIP
UNRWA UNTSO UPU WCO WFTU WHO
WIPO WMO WTO ZC

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Antarctic Treaty Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping
Marine Life Conservation Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 06 Wetlands Whaling

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: Finnish Ministry of Finance and National Board of Taxes

Tax Name: VAT


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary