Hungary: Government

Hungary Flag
Coat of Arms of Hungary

Key Figures

Chief of State: President János Áder

Head of Government: Prime Minister Viktor Orbán

Overview

Government Name: Hungary

Constitution: Adopted: 2012; Is the first constitution adopted within a democratic framework and following free elections and succeeded the 1949 constitution.

Government Type: Parliamentary Democracy

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

The president is largely a ceremonial role and serves as the commander-in-chief. The prime minister selects cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them.

The president is elected by the national assembly and must have two-thirds of the legislative votes in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round. The prime minister is elected by the national assembly on recommendation of the president.

President: 5 years; Prime Minister: 4 years

Judicial

The constitutional court has the power to challenge legislation on the grounds of unconstitutionality. The high court of justice is the highest court of the land and has jurisdiction over all Hungarian courts.

The constitutional court judges are elected by two-thirds vote of the national assembly. The supreme court judges are appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the national council of justice.

Constitutional court: 12 years; High court of justice: life appointment

Legislative

Initiates and approves legislation sponsored by the prime minister.

176 members are elected in single-member constituencies, 152 members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system, and 58 members are allocated from a national compensatory list.

4 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: Since 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, and the European Union. Hungary also has improved its often-chilled neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare.

Regional Trade Blocs: European Union

Treaties: NATO, Common Security and Defense Policy


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

Australia Group BIS CD CE CEI CERN
EAPC EBRD EIB ESA EU FAO
IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA
IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF
IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU
ISO ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINURSO
NATO NEA NSG OAS OECD OIF
OPCW OSCE PCA Schengen Convention SELEC UN
UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL
UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO
WMO WTO ZC

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species
Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution
Tropical Timber 06 Wetlands Whaling

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: Ministry for National Economy & National Tax and Customs Authority

Tax Name: VAT


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary