Over one million people die from starvation as a result of a campaign to settle nomadic Kazakhs and collectivize agriculture.
The Kazakhs emerge as a distinct ethnic group with the formation of the Kazakh khanate.
Tsarist Russia retains control over the Kazakh tribes despite many uprisings in the ensuing 50 years.
Civil war breaks out following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia.
Kazakhstan becomes an autonomous republic of the USSR.
Kazakhstan becomes a full union republic of the USSR.
"Throughout the next decade, about 2 million Russians and people of other ethnicities move to Kazakhstan to turn pasturelands into a grain-producing region for the Soviet Union as part of Khrushchev's ""Virgin Lands"" program. "
Kazakhstan declares independence from the Soviet Union and joins the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Kazakhstan is admitted into the United Nations.
Kazakhstan signs an economic and military cooperation pact with Russia.
Major oil agreements are made with China; the Kazakh capital is moved from Almaty in the south to Akmola in the north and is called Astana.
Kazakhstan joins China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in launching the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which aims to promote trade and fight ethnic and religious militancy.
A deal is signed with China to construct an oil pipeline from Kazakhstan to the Chinese border.
France signs $6 billion worth of business and energy deals with Kazakhstan.