• Over one million people die from starvation as a result of a campaign to settle nomadic Kazakhs and collectivize agriculture.
  • The Kazakhs emerge as a distinct ethnic group with the formation of the Kazakh khanate.
  • Tsarist Russia retains control over the Kazakh tribes despite many uprisings in the ensuing 50 years.
  • Civil war breaks out following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia.
  • Kazakhstan becomes an autonomous republic of the USSR.
  • Kazakhstan becomes a full union republic of the USSR.
  • "Throughout the next decade, about 2 million Russians and people of other ethnicities move to Kazakhstan to turn pasturelands into a grain-producing region for the Soviet Union as part of Khrushchev's ""Virgin Lands"" program. "
  • Kazakhstan declares independence from the Soviet Union and joins the Commonwealth of Independent States.
  • Kazakhstan is admitted into the United Nations.
  • Kazakhstan signs an economic and military cooperation pact with Russia.
  • Major oil agreements are made with China; the Kazakh capital is moved from Almaty in the south to Akmola in the north and is called Astana.
  • Kazakhstan joins China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in launching the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which aims to promote trade and fight ethnic and religious militancy.
  • A deal is signed with China to construct an oil pipeline from Kazakhstan to the Chinese border.
  • France signs $6 billion worth of business and energy deals with Kazakhstan.


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