Spanish explorers claim the islands and name them the Philippines after the heir to the Spanish throne.
The United State's navy defeats Spain's fleet in Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War. Spain cedes the Philippines to the US under the Treaty of Paris.
A US civil government replaces military rule.
The islands are granted full independence and are renamed the Republic of the Philippines.
The Philippines sign a peace treaty with Japan and eventually receive $800 million in reparations payments.
President Ferdinand Marcos declares martial law and the parliament is suspended, opposition politicians are arrested, and censorship is imposed.