Romania: Government

Romania Flag
Coat of Arms of Romania

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Klaus Iohannis

Head of Government: Prime Minister Dacian Ciolos

Overview

Government Name: Romania

Constitution: Adopted: 1991; Contains 8 titles which detail general principles fundamental rights, liberties, and duties, public authorities, the economy and public finance, constitutional court, Euro-Atlantic integration, revising the constitution, and final and transitional provisions.

Government Type: Republic

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

President is responsible for safeguarding the constitution, is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, and the chairperson of the Supreme Council of National Defense. Prime minister chooses other members of government.

President is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. Prime minister is appointed by the president with the approval of the parliament.

5 years

Judicial

High Court of Justice and Cassation is Romania's supreme court and the court of last resort.

Justices appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates.

9 years

Legislative

Senate is the higher house of the parliament and both houses serve as a bicameral legislature for the Romanian government.

Senate members are elected through a modified mixed-member proportional system. Chamber of Deputies has 19 members that are reserved for minorities and 315 members elected through a modified mixed-member proportional system.

4 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: Since December 1989, Romania has actively pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, and specifically with the U.S. and the European Union. Romania formally joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 2004, and hosted a NATO Summit from April 2-4, 2008. The venue symbolized the expansion of the Alliance from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and set new goals for years to come. Romania acceded to the European Union on January 1, 2007 along with Bulgaria, bringing the number of EU states to 27. Romania is a strong advocate for a "larger Europe," encouraging other countries that were formerly part of the Soviet sphere to integrate into both NATO and the EU. Romania has been actively involved in regional organizations, such as the Southeast Europe Cooperation Initiative (SECI) and the Stability Pact for Southeast Europe, and has been a positive force in supporting stability and cooperation in the area.

Regional Trade Blocs: European Union

Treaties: NATO, Common Security and Defense Policy


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

Australia Group BIS BSEC CBSS CD CE
CEI EAPC EBRD EIB ESA EU
FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM
IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO
IMF IMO IMSO Interpol IOC IOM
IPU ISO ITSO ITU ITUC LAIA
MIGA MONUSCO NATO NSG OAS OIF
OPCW OSCE PCA SELEC UN UNCTAD
UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO Union Latina UNMIL UNMISS
UNOCI UNWTO UPU WCO WFTU WHO
WIPO WMO WTO ZC

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic Treaty Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Air Pollution Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea
Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 06 Wetlands

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: Ministry of Public Finance

Tax Name: VAT


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary