Germany: Government

Federal Republic of Germany Flag
Coat of Arms of Federal Republic of Germany

Key Figures

Chief of State: President Joachim Gauck

Head of Government: Chancellor Angela Merkel

Overview

Government Name: Federal Republic of Germany

Constitution: Adopted: 1949; democratic constitution emphasizes the protection of individual liberty and division of powers in a federal structure. Influenced both by Roman and German law traditions.

Government Type: Federal Republic

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle Source: ElectionGuide, http://www.electionguide.org/
Executive

Consists of the federal president and the federal cabinet.

The federal president is elected by indirect vote, while the chancellor is elected by parliament.

President: 5 years; Chancellor: 4 years

Judicial

Consists of the federal constitutional court, who has responsibility for supreme court decisions.

One half is elected by each division of parliament.

12 year terms with mandatory retirement age of 68

Legislative

The Bundestag and Bundesrat are responsible for legislation.

The federal council (Bundesrat) has 69 members who are filled by regional legislatures. The federal diet (Bundestag) are elected by a plurality vote in single-member constituencies and are allocated by popular vote through a mixed-member proportional system.

4 years

International Relations

Foreign Policy Trends: Germany continues to emphasize close ties with the United States, membership in NATO, and the "deepening" of integration among current members of the EU. Germany has been a large net contributor to the EU budget. Germany also is a strong supporter of the United Nations and of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Regional Trade Blocs: European Union

Treaties: NATO, Common Security and Defense Policy


International Organization Participation  Source: CIA World Factbook

ADB AfDB Arctic Council Australia Group BIS BSEC
CBSS CD CDB CE CERN EAPC
EBRD ECB EIB EITI EMU ESA
EU FAO FATF G-10 G-20 G-5
G-7 G-8 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO
ICC ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC
IFRCS IGAD IHO ILO IMF IMO
IMSO Interpol IOC IOM IPU ISO
ITSO ITU ITUC MIGA MINUSMA NATO
NEA NSG OAS OECD OPCW OSCE
Pacific Alliance Paris Club PCA Schengen Convention SELEC SICA
UN UNAMID UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO
UNIFIL UNMIL UNMISS UNRWA UNWTO UPU
WCO WHO WIPO WMO WTO ZC

Note: Click table to see details


Environmental Agreements  Source: CIA World Factbook

Air Pollution Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Air Pollution-Sulfur 85 Air Pollution-Sulfur 94 Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Antarctic Seals Antarctic Treaty Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Antarctic-Marine Living Resources Biodiversity Climate Change
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Environmental Modification Hazardous Wastes Law of the Sea
Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Tropical Timber 06 Wetlands Whaling

Note: Click table to see details


Tax Authority: German Ministry of Finance

Tax Name: VAT


Sources:

CIA World Factbook and U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets except where stated otherwise.

Glossary