- Chief of State:
- President Frank-Walter Steinmeier
- Head of Government:
- Chancellor Olaf Scholz
- Government Name:
- Federal Republic of Germany
- Adopted: 1949; democratic constitution emphasizes the protection of individual liberty and division of powers in a federal structure. Influenced both by Roman and German law traditions.
- Government Type:
- Federal Republic
Index of Economic Freedom
Grades each country on a scale of 0 to 100, based on ten freedoms, with 100 representing the greatest amount of economic autonomy from government intervention. Source: Heritage Foundation (2019)
Country Risk Rating
Changes in generally good but somewhat volatile political and economic environment can affect corporate payment behavior. A basically secure business environment can nonetheless give rise to occasional difficulties for companies. Corporate default probability is quite acceptable on average. Source: Coface (2022)
|Main Powers||Election Process||Election Cycle 1|
Consists of the federal president and the federal cabinet.
The federal president is elected by indirect vote, while the chancellor is elected by parliament.
President: 5 years; Chancellor: 4 years
Consists of the federal constitutional court, who has responsibility for supreme court decisions.
One half is elected by each division of parliament.
12 year terms with mandatory retirement age of 68
The Bundestag and Bundesrat are responsible for legislation.
The federal council (Bundesrat) has 69 members who are filled by regional legislatures. The federal diet (Bundestag) are elected by a plurality vote in single-member constituencies and are allocated by popular vote through a mixed-member proportional system.
Regional Trade Blocs
International Organization Participation 
Environmental Agreements 
Tax Information 
- Tax Authority:
- German Ministry of Finance
- Tax Name:
- ElectionGuide http://www.electionguide.org/
- EY, http://www.ey.com
- CIA World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/
- U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/