Mexico: History

  1. 250-900

    The Mayan civilization flourishes in modern day Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, before mysteriously collapsing.

  2. 1428-1521

    The Aztec Empire becomes dominant in Mexico with Tenochtitlan (modern-day Mexico City) as the major city.

  3. 1521

    Hernan Cortes conquers Mexico and establishes a Spanish colony which lasts nearly 300 years.

  4. 1821

    Mexico gains independence from Spain after a decade-long struggle, led by Father Miguel Hidalgo

  5. 1848

    The Mexican American war, which started in 1846, ends. Mexico ends up having to give its Northern provinces, including California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah, to the United States.

  6. 1877

    General Porfirio Diaz becomes president and establishes an authoritarian government. His presidency brings stability and economic growth to Mexico, but also brings political repression.

  7. 1910

    Porfirio Diaz is kicked out of office during the Mexican revolution, which eventually leads to the forming of a constitutional republic.

  8. 1934

    President Lazaro Cardenas begins a program of oil nationalization, land reform, and industrial expansion.

  9. 1976

    Huge offshore oil reserves are discovered, including the Cantarell field.

  10. 1993

    The Mexican parliament ratifies the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the United States and Canada.

  11. 2008

    The government passes a series of energy reforms because of a drop in domestic oil production. As part of the reform, private investors are controversially allowed to invest in Pemex, a state owned oil company.

  12. 2009

    In an effort to protect the country from the recession in the US, the government releases a $150 million package to boost the economy.

  13. 2009

    Open warfare erupts between rival drug gangs in Ciudad Juarez on the US border; US Army troops are sent to stop the violence.


BBC News