Mexico: History

  1. 1821

    Mexico gains independence from Spain after a decade-long struggle, ending nearly three centuries of Spanish rule.

  2. 1848

    The Mexican-American war, which started in 1846, ends. Mexico is required to cede present-day California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah, to the United States.

  3. 1934

    President Lazaro Cardenas begins a program of oil nationalization, land reform, and industrial expansion.

  4. 1976

    Huge offshore oil reserves are discovered; the Cantarell field becomes the mainstay of Mexico's oil production.

  5. 1993

    Mexico's parliament ratifies the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the United States and Canada.

  6. 2008

    The government passes a series of energy reforms because of a drop in domestic oil production. As part of the reform, private investors are controversially allowed to invest in Pemex, a state owned oil company.

  7. 2009

    In an effort to protect Mexico's economy from the recession in the US, the government releases a $150 million aid package to boost the economy.


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