• Mongol tribes invade Kazakhstan, led by Gengis Khan.

  • With the formation of the Kazakh khanate, the Kazakhs emerge as a distinct ethnic group.

  • Kazakhstan becomes a full union republic of the USSR after being initiated as an autonomous republic of the USSR in 1920.

  • Kazakhstan declares independence from the Soviet Union and joins the Commonwealth of Independent States. 

  • Kazakhstan is admitted into the United Nations and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. 

  • A pact is signed with Russia for economic and military cooperation.

  • The Kazakh capital is moved from Almaty to Akmola, which is renamed Astana in 1998. Also major oil agreements with China are secured. 

  • Kazakhstan joins China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in launching the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) to help promote trade and fight ethnic and religious militancy.

  • A deal is signed with China for the construction of a 620 mile (1,000 km) oil pipeline on the Chinese border which begins construction in 2005.

  • France and Kazakhstan sign energy and business deals worth $6 billion.

  • Kazakhstan becomes the first former Soviet state to chair the Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) security and rights group.

  • Kazakhstan signs an agreement with Russia and Belarus to create the Eurasian Economic Union to create a shared market and integrate their economic policies. 

  • President Nazarbayev steps down, but retains a role as chairman of the National Security Council. 

  • President Tokayev removes Nazarbayev from his remaining posts. 


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