Key Figures

Chief of State:
President José Ramos-Horta
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Kay Rala Xanana Gusmao


Government Name:
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
Adopted: 2002; Recognizes Timor-Leste as an independent republic after centuries of Portuguese colonization from the 16th century. The Constitution contains provisions regarding intellectual property.
Government Type:
Semi-Presidential Republic
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste Flag
Coat of Arms of Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

Index of Economic Freedom

Grades each country on a scale of 0 to 100, based on ten freedoms, with 100 representing the greatest amount of economic autonomy from government intervention. Source: Heritage Foundation (2023)

Country Risk Rating

A high-risk political and economic situation and an often very difficult business environment can have a very significant impact on corporate payment behavior. Corporate default probability is very high. Source: Coface (2022)

Government Branches

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle 1

Powers are somewhat limited by the constitution, but is able to veto legislation which can be overridden by the parliament.

President is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system, prime minister is appointed by the president.

5 years


Independent courts, described as organs of sovereignty with competencies to administer justice in the name of the people.

Appointed by president.

4 years


Pass relevant, well drafted legislation in a timely manner, provide a counterbalance to the powers of the presidency, and establish and maintain proper, efficient and effective communication between the various branches of government.

National Parliament members are elected through a closed-list proportional representation system.

5 years

Regional Trade Blocs

No Regional Trade Blocs

International Organization Participation [2]

Environmental Agreements [3]

Tax Information [2]

Tax Authority:
Information not available
Tax Name:
Information not available


  1. ElectionGuide
  2. EY,
  3. CIA World Factbook,
  4. U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets