• Following unification if the Mongol tribes, Genghis Khan launches a campaign of conquest. His sons and grandsons create the world's biggest land empire.

  • The Manchu (Qing) empire conquers southern Mongols, creating inner Mongolia. 

  • The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia.

  • The Qing dynasty falls; Russia and the Republic of China recognize Outer Mongolia's autonomy after it declares independence. 

  • With Red Army support, Mongolian revolutionaries drive out Chinese and Tsarist forces and install the Mongolian "people's government".

  • Yalta conference preserves the Soviet's control in Mongolia, and Mongolians vote for independence in an UN plebiscite.

  • Railway built across Mongolia linking Russia and China.

  • The IMF approves $40 million for low-interest loans for three years to help reduce poverty and boost economic growth.

  • Russia writes off all but $300 million of Mongolia's debts.

  • Mongolia and Rio Tinto-owned Ivanhoe Mines reach an agreement on stakeholding in the massive Oyu Tolgoi copper mine.

  • Mongolia reaches an agreement worth over $5 billion with the IMF and other international partners on the condition that it will implement fiscal reforms and strengthen its banking system. 


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