• Panama becomes the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Andalucia.

  • Gran Colombia, which includes Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.

  • Panama becomes part of Colombia after the collapse of Gran Colombia.

  • A treaty with the United States is signed allowing them to build a railway across the Isthmus.

  • France attempts to build a canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans but fails due to financial difficulties and the death of more than 20,000 workers from tropical diseases.

  • Panama splits away from Colombia and becomes fully independent. The US buys the rights to build Panama Canal and is given control of the Canal Zone in perpetuity.

  • The Panama Canal is completed which dramatically boosts to both Panama's and the US's economies.

  • Panama is no longer a US protectorate.

  • Panama takes full control of the Panama Canal, which is one of the world's most strategic waterways after the US agreed to give them rights for the canal in 1977.

  • After failing to make its tax system more transparent, Panama is removed from the international list of uncooperative tax havens. 

  • Panama and the US agree on a free trade deal, however, it is not approved by the US Congress until 2011.

  • Workers end a strike on a project to expand the Panama Canal after the consortium in charge agrees to increase the minimum wage. The $5.25 billion project to widen the Panama Canal and double its capacity is due to be completed in 2014.

  • France decides to place Panama back on the international list of uncooperative tax jurisdictions as Panama fails to comply with the international tax standards. 

Sources:

BBC News open_in_new
Britannica open_in_new