• The German protectorate of Togoland is established and forced labor is used to develop plantations.
  • British and French forces take control of Togoland.
  • The League of Nations gives Britain a mandate over the western part of Togoland and France a mandate over the eastern part.
  • Togo gains its independence.
  • France, Germany, and the United States suspend aid in an effort to press for democratic reforms.
  • The European Union restores partial diplomatic relations that were broken in 1993 because of violence and democratic shortcomings.


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