Key Figures

Chief of State:
President Alar Karis
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Kaja Kallas


Government Name:
Republic of Estonia
Adopted: 1992; Incorporates elements from previous constitutions (1920 & 1938). Fundamental rights, freedoms, and duties; the people; the Riigikogu (legislative power); president and government of the republic; legislation; finance and the state budget; foreign relations and international treaties; national defense; the state audit office; the chancellor of justice; the courts; and local government are topics detailed in the document.
Government Type:
Parliamentary Republic
Republic of Estonia Flag
Coat of Arms of Republic of Estonia

Index of Economic Freedom

Grades each country on a scale of 0 to 100, based on ten freedoms, with 100 representing the greatest amount of economic autonomy from government intervention. Source: Heritage Foundation (2023)

Country Risk Rating

Changes in generally good but somewhat volatile political and economic environment can affect corporate payment behavior. A basically secure business environment can nonetheless give rise to occasional difficulties for companies. Corporate default probability is quite acceptable on average. Source: Coface (2023)

Government Branches

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle 1

The executive branch carries out the country’s domestic and foreign policy. Shaped by parliament, it directs and coordinates the work of government institutions and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power.

The president is elected by parliament. The prime minister is nominated by the president and approved by parliament.

5 years


The judicial branch includes the review of court decisions which have entered into force (a new hearing of a court decision which has entered into force is conducted on the basis of a petition by a participant in the proceedings after new facts relevant to the adjudication of the case become evident) and the correction of court errors in court decisions which have entered into force.

The chief justice is proposed by the president and appointed by the Riigikogu, other justices are proposed by the chief justice and appointed by the Riigikogu.

Life appointment


The legislature ratifies significant foreign agreements that impose military and proprietary obligations, brings about changes in law, approves the budget presented by the government as law, and monitors the executive power.

The parliament has 101 members elected through an open-list proportional representation.

4 years

Regional Trade Blocs

International Organization Participation [2]

Environmental Agreements [3]

Tax Information [2]

Tax Authority:
Ministry of Finance & Estonian Tax and Customs Board
Tax Name:


  1. ElectionGuide
  2. EY,
  3. CIA World Factbook,
  4. U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets