• The rise of the Ottoman Empire after Sultan Mehmed I captures Constantinople, ending the Byzantine Empire.

  • After the central powers were defeated in World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned under the treaty of Sevres which led to the war of independence in Turkey.  

  • Turkey gains full independence and is declared a republic.  

  • Turkey joins the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

  • Turkey signs an association agreement with the European Economic Community (ECC).

  • The US sets a trade embargo on Turkey after Turkish troops invade northern Cyprus.  

  • Turkey formally applies for full ECC membership and begins the longest application process for any country.  

  • Turkey enters the European Union (EU) customs union, imposing a common external tariff on all goods entering the union and no customs on goods travelling within the union.

  • Economic and political reforms begin, aiming to secure a place in the EU

  • The new lira currency is introduced as six zeros are removed from the old lira, ending an era in which banknotes were denominated in millions.  


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