Highwall Mining

In highwall mining, the coal seam is penetrated by a continuous miner propelled by a hydraulic machine.

Surface Mining

Companies in this segment remove soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit through shafts or tunnels.

Underground Mining

The segment includes companies that dig tunnels or shafts into the earth in order to reach buried ore deposits, such as coal and other hard rocks.

The Mining, Minerals, Metals industry is Highly Concentrated. The production in this industry is dominated by a small amount of large firms that are able to shape the industry’s direction and price levels.

Primary Demand Drivers

  • Coal: Generators of electricity
  • Metal ore: Industrial production
  • Nonmetallic mineral: Construction spending and agricultural spending on fertilizers

Profitability Drivers

  • Efficient operations since most products are commodities sold based on price
  • Volume of operations
  • Strategic acquisitions at bargain prices

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China has been the world's number one importer of waste for the past 20 years. However, in an effort to address their growing pollution problem, 2018 marked the year China would begin banning imported recyclable waste from other nations. This ban applies to 24 types of materials including plastics, unsorted paper, textiles, and scrap metal and is predicted to include 32 more types by the end of 2019. As a result, countries around the world are scrambling to figure out how and where to dispose of their piling waste.

Ms. Sheila Khama serves as the Practice Manager for the World Bank’s Energy and Extractive Industries Global Practice with a focus on eastern and southern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, southern Asia, Europe and central Asia, and the Extractives Global Programmatic Support Trust Fund. Khama previously worked as the Director of the African Resources Center at the African Development Bank (AfDB). With these along with her other positions, Khama focused on the development of African countries from the use of natural resources.


  1. Hoovers (Date Accessed: 6/1/2017)