• French explorer Jacques Cartier claims the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence for France.

  • Newfoundland becomes England's first overseas colony.

  • Fur trade becomes increasingly important and lucrative in the region, establishing a rivalry between the French, British, and Dutch.

  • The Seven Years' War begins between New France and the British colonies. The war ends in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, which gave all French colonies east of the Mississippi to Britain.

  • The British North America Act is passed, creating a federation between Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, beginning the modern Canadian government.

  • The Canadian Pacific railroad is completed, thereby facilitating communication and transportation across the nation.
  • A gold rush occurs along the upper Yukon River.

  • The Statute of Westminster is agreed upon, giving all British dominions complete autonomy, including Canada.
  • Canada becomes a founding member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

  • The Canada Act is passed by Britain, granting complete independence to Canada.

  • Parliament approves a $30 billion stimulus package to shore up the economy during the global financial crisis.

  • Canada becomes the first country to formally withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol on reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses.

  • Canada signs a free trade agreement with the European Union.

  • The U.S., Canada and Mexico reach a new trade deal to replace the current North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) gives the US greater access to Canada's dairy market, and allows extra imports of Canadian cars.

  • Canada's New Democratic Party and Liberals entered a formal confidence-and-supply agreement, promising to keep Prime Minister Trudeau's government in power until the next fixed federal elections in October 2025.


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