Key Figures

Chief of State:
Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor General David L. Johnston
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau


Government Name:
Adopted: 1986; The constitution is not written in one single document, but instead in a number of constitutional acts. These acts outline the system of government and civil rights of citizens and those in Canada.
Government Type:
Federal Parliamentary Democracy under a Constitutional Monarchy
Canada Flag
Coat of Arms of Canada

Index of Economic Freedom

Grades each country on a scale of 0 to 100, based on ten freedoms, with 100 representing the greatest amount of economic autonomy from government intervention. Source: Heritage Foundation (2018)

Country Risk Rating

Changes in generally good but somewhat volatile political and economic environment can affect corporate payment behavior. A basically secure business environment can nonetheless give rise to occasional difficulties for companies. Corporate default probability is quite acceptable on average. Source: Coface (2018)

Government Branches

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle 1

The queen is the ceremonial figure for the Canadian government. The governor-general performs the monarch's federal constitutional duties, acting within the principles of parliamentary democracy and responsible government as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance. The prime minister advises the Canadian monarch or viceroy. It exists only as per long-established convention. The QPC (Privy Council) act as personal consultants to the Monarch depending on their specific title names.

The queen is hereditary. The governor-general is appointed by the queen. The prime minister is appointed by the queen. The QPC (Privy Council) is appointed by the governor-general.

Governor-General: at Her Majesty's pleasure (normally 5 years); Prime Minister: at Her Majesty's pleasure; QPC: Life


The judiciary protects the freedom and rights of the citizens.

The chief justice and judges are appointed by the prime minister in council.

Mandatory retirement age of 75


The senate tends to be less dominant than the house of commons. The approval of both houses is needed for legislation, but the senate rarely rejects bills passed by the directly elected commons.

The senate has 105 members who are appointed by the governor-general. The house of commons has 308 members who are elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies.

Senate: no terms are set and senators may serve until the age of 75; House of Commons: 5 years

Regional Trade Blocs

International Organization Participation [2]

Environmental Agreements [3]

Tax Information [2]

Tax Authority:
Canada Revenue Agency
Tax Name:


  1. ElectionGuide
  2. EY,
  3. CIA World Factbook,
  4. U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets