Key Figures

Chief of State:
President Andrzej Duda
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki


Government Name:
Republic of Poland
Adopted: 1997; This constitution transformed Poland from a single-party system to a multi-party one and instituted a free market economic system as opposed to the previous socialistic system.
Government Type:
Republic of Poland Flag
Coat of Arms of Republic of Poland

Index of Economic Freedom

Grades each country on a scale of 0 to 100, based on ten freedoms, with 100 representing the greatest amount of economic autonomy from government intervention. Source: Heritage Foundation (2023)

Country Risk Rating

A somewhat shaky political and economic outlook and a relatively volatile business environment can affect corporate payment behavior. Corporate default probability is still acceptable on average. Source: Coface (2022)

Government Branches

Main Powers Election Process Election Cycle 1

President is the head of state, supreme representative of Poland internationally, and has the power to dissolve parliament in special cases. Prime minister proposes the composition of the Cabinet of Ministers and submits a program which outlines the government's agenda to the Sejm.

President is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system, while the prime minister is appointed by the president with the approval of the Sejm.

5 years


Court of last resort of appeal against judgments in the lower courts.

Court judges are nominated by the Krajowa Rada Sadownictwa (National Council of the Judiciary) and are appointed by the president.

Mandatory retirement age of 65


Meet on three occasions: taking an oath of office by a president, binding an indictment against the President of the Republic to the Tribunal of State, and a declaration of the president's permanent incapacity to exercise duties due to their health.

Senate members are elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies. Sejm members are elected through an open-list proportional representation system.

4 years

Regional Trade Blocs

International Organization Participation [2]

Environmental Agreements [3]

Tax Information [2]

Tax Authority:
Ministry of Finance
Tax Name:


  1. ElectionGuide
  2. EY,
  3. CIA World Factbook,
  4. U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets